Identity exploration led to shorter decision times, higher confidence ratings and more intrusions in memory tasks. We then paired a high- and a low-desirability group and made four word lists including 25 high- and 25 low-desirability words. The four tasks that were used were: All participants had normal or corrected-to-normal vision and reported no history of psychiatric or neurological disorders.
When a larger group is considered, people may be more likely to consider a prototype which may lead to fewer elaborations and cues later on.
This thought process and relational thinking creates word to word associations.
As such, it can be argued that self-referential encoding is superior because it leads to an indirect division of words into categories: Furthermore, Leshikar and Duarte measured neural activity while participants studied and subsequently retrieved pictures of common objects under either self-reference or self-external encoding instructions.
Recently, Leshikar and Duarte investigated the effects of self-reference on source memory performance and associated neural activity in young and older adults.
Generally, this question is met by people that have two opposing views on the processes behind self-reference. Research[ edit ] InGeorge Kelly published his theory about how humans create personal constructs. During the process of free recall, these individuals also showed more patterns for gender clustering than other sexually typed individuals.
Through studying the self, researchers have found that the self consists of many independent cognitive representations. Similar activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex is displayed in cases where participants show the memory advantage that emerges when items are encoded in a self-relevant manner.
They found that both young and older adults demonstrated enhanced recognition of visual details for negatively-valenced objects in comparison to positive or neutral objects.
Processing personal information can be distinguished and recalled differently with age.
Memory strategies and orientations that engage "deep" encoding processes benefit older adults. This all starts with the medical prefrontal cortex MPFC. However, these conclusions are limited to the target groups of university students and family.
Rogers, Kuiper, and Kirker performed one of the first studies examining the self-reference effect making it a foundational article. Psychologists have investigated the biological basis for the decreased self-reference effect among individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders and have suggested that it may be due to less specialized neural activity in the mPFC for those individuals.
The hypothesis that the "self" concept is active in memory was tested in a series of recognition experiments involving first- and third-person sentences under several instructional conditions.
The hypothesis that the “self” concept is active in memory was tested in a series of recognition experiments involving first- and third-person sentences under several instructional conditions. Reference to self, other, and object as levels of processing in recognition memory Gustavo Gauer ([email protected]) Department of Developmental and Personality Psychology, Rua Ramiro Barcelos, Bicultural mind, self-construal, and self- and mother-reference effects: Consequences of cultural priming on recognition memory Author links open overlay panel Jie Sui a Ying Zhu a Chi-yue Chiu b Show more.
Ageing and the self-reference effect in memory ARTICLE in MEMORY · NOVEMBER AGEING AND THE SELF-REFERENCE EFFECT XXXXXXXXXXXXX during self-referencing decisions (Gutchess, Ken- differences in the self-reference effect using recognition memory.
We investigate young and. Self-referencing has been identified as an advantageous mnemonic strategy for young and older adults.
However, little research has investigated the ways in which self-referencing may influence older adults’ memory for details, which is typically impaired with age, beyond memory for the item itself.Self reference memory recognition